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07 mars 2017

Le 07 Mars 2017

Préparées par Jean-François Etter

Sommaire:
• Cigarette électronique : une étude positive sur ses effets à long terme
• 5 applis pour arrêter de fumer
• Re-thinking nicotine and its effects

Cigarette électronique : une étude positive sur ses effets à long terme

es chercheurs du Royaume-Uni viennent de publier une étude qui révèle la moindre toxicité de la cigarette électronique comme alternative au tabac, sur le long terme... Lire l'article (Paris Match):

http://www.parismatch.com/Actu/Sante/Cigarette-electronique-une-etude-positive-sur-les-effets-a-long-terme-1183319


5 applis pour arrêter de fumer

Dans le cadre de la Formation continuée en tabacologie coordonnée par le FARES à Liège, Bertrand Dassargues s'est intéressé pour son mémoire à l'application stop-tabac.ch, élaborée par le Pr Etter, professeur de santé publique à l'université de Genève. Le but était d'analyser les effets de l'application sur le comportement tabagique de ses utilisateurs.

Et le résultat pour cette application est le suivant: L'application serait un excellent outil de réduction des risques grâce à une diminution moyenne de 5 cigarettes par jour, une modification des habitudes tabagiques et d'un prolongement du temps entre le lever et la première cigarette. Enfin, l'application s'avère être un outil de suivi et de soutien quotidien apprécié par les fumeurs durant leur arrêt.

http://www.lavenir.net/cnt/dmf20170111_00943096/5-applis-pour-arreter-de-fumer


Re-thinking nicotine and its effects

A new paper by TRUTH INITIATIVE /Schroeder Institute, on rethinking nicotine and its effects, authored by Ray Niaura is worth taking a look at:

http://truthinitiative.org/sites/default/files/ReThinking-Nicotine.pdf

Here is the sumarry:

o Most of the physiological harm attributable to cigarette smoking derives from the toxicants in tobacco and combustion products. Preventable morbidity and mortality has overwhelmingly been related to combusted tobacco smoking, not to nicotine itself. Decoupled from combustion or other toxic modes of delivery, nicotine, by itself, is much less harmful.

o Nicotine is not known to cause cancer. Epidemiological evidence in human populations does not support the basic science concern from laboratory studies that nicotine promotes some cancer pathway activation. There is no evidence that nicotine, by itself, is a carcinogen. More research is required to demonstrate if, and to what degree, there may be a concern about nicotine's role as a cancer promoter.

o Nicotine may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its impact is much less, compared to tobacco smoke.

o At very high doses, higher than those experienced by the vast majority of nicotine and tobacco product users, nicotine can cause serious acute toxicity.

o Nicotine is not generally safe to use in pregnancy and can harm fetal development. The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline makes clear that smoking exposes the fetus to numerous other chemicals that are injurious to the woman and fetus (p. 172, 2008). However, many experts agree that nicotine replacement medications should be considered during pregnancy if smoking cessation cannot be achieved without the medications. The same treatment principle holds true for patients with CVD.

o Nicotine use causes neuroadaptive changes in the adult brain that may contribute to the risk of developing dependence, but many of these changes are largely reversible and not known to be harmful. Some animal model studies show that nicotine exposure in adolescence can induce neuroadaptive changes that persist into the adulthood of the animal. While animal models suggest possible concerns for humans, more research is required to demonstrate if, and at what dosage and duration of exposure, nicotine might have possible adverse effects during adolescent and young adult brain development.

o Nicotine is used for a number of reasons. In human studies, acute administration of nicotine can have positive effects on cognitive processes, such as improving attention, fine motor coordination, concentration, memory, speed of information processing, and alleviation of boredom or drowsiness. Some nicotine users benefit from self- medication effects for alleviation of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mental health and medical conditions, including schizophrenia and Parkinson's Disease. Nicotine also reverses cognitive deficits caused by withdrawal. It is not clear if chronic use of nicotine enhances cognitive function.

o Nicotine use is reinforcing and leads to varying degrees of dependence. The likelihood of dependence varies with the rate, amount, and pattern of nicotine delivery, as well as biopsychosocial differences between the users. When nicotine is delivered in the smoke from combusting tobacco, it is absorbed most efficiently and rapidly into the body and produces the highest level of appeal, addiction, and toxicity to human users.

o There are large differences in the response and degree of dependence to nicotine within a population. At the two extremes, some may find nicotine has little effect or may even be aversive, while others find it very appealing and become heavily dependent. The vast majority of effects are distributed between these two extremes. Some subgroups, such as those with an underlying vulnerability to mental health or medical conditions, may benefit, more or less, from the use of nicotine, when compared with the general population.



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