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09 septembre 2014

La newsletter de stop-tabac: les sujets clés de l?actualité mondiale sur le tabagisme

Sélection réalisée par Jean-François Etter

Le 9 septembre 201

- L'OMS accusée de ne pas dire la vérité sur la cigarette électronique
- Enquête par questionnaires sur la e-cigarette, 
- Cigarette électronique et industrie du tabac
- Electronic cigarettes: Fact and Faction -
- A Molecular Basis for Nicotine as a Gateway Drug (or is there any?)
- Chattez avec un médecin tabacologue


L'OMS accusée de ne pas dire la vérité sur la cigarette électronique

Fin août l'OMS rendait public un rapport dans lequel elle prenait une nouvelle fois position contre toute facilitation de l'usage de la e-cigarette. Elle reçut en réponse une volée de bois vert. De la part des associations de vapoteurs mais aussi de scientifiques spécialistes de la question.

Voici que cette affaire rebondit aujourd'hui. Pas encore de vague en France mais, déjà, sur la remarquable BBC Health. Le nouveau pavé est de taille. On le trouvera dans la revue Addiction. Il est signé par cinq des meilleurs spécialistes internationaux de cette question majeure de santé publique : Ann McNeill, Jean-Francois Etter, Konstantinos Farsalinos, Peter Hajek, Jacques le Houezec et Hayden McRobbie. Lire la suite: ...

http://jeanyvesnau.com/2014/09/05/loms-accusee-de-ne-pas-dire-la-verite-sur-les-dangers-de-la-cigarette-electronique/

Voir aussi

http://sante.lefigaro.fr/actualite/2014/09/05/22752-e-cigarettes-loms-accusee-dexagerer-risques

http://www.lepoint.fr/sante/e-cigarettes-des-experts-contestent-le-rapport-alarmiste-de-l-oms-05-09-2014-1860364_40.php

http://www.huffingtonpost.fr/nicolas-bonnet/dangers-cigarette-electronique_b_5751810.html

http://www.lemonde.fr/sante/article/2014/09/05/cigarette-electronique-le-rapport-de-l-oms-juge-exagere_4482620_1651302.html

See in English:

Financial Times

Critics fume over WHO call for curbs on ecigarette sales

The debate over the safety of electronic cigarettes and how they should be regulated intensified on Friday as a panel of UK [and Switzerland] public health experts criticised a World Health Organisation report that called for strong restrictions on the sale of ecigarettes.

http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/9d7dee3a-343d-11e4-b81c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3CQl4FYDJ

Article original:

A critique of a WHO-commissioned report and associated article on electronic cigarettes

Ann McNeill, Jean-Francois Etter, Konstantinos Farsalinos, Peter Hajek, Jacques le Houezec and Hayden McRobbie

Addiction - DOI: 10.1111/add.12730

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.12730/pdf

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.12730/abstract (08 09 2014) 
(09 09 2014)


Enquête par questionnaires sur la e-cigarette,

Nouvelle enquête par questionnaires du Centre d'évaluation et d'information sur les pharmacodépendances (France). Prenez le temps d'y répondre si vous utilisez la e-cigarette:

http://addictovigilance.aphp.fr/enquete-sur-la-cigarette-electronique-dans-la-population-generale/ (02 09 2014) 
(09 09 2014)


Cigarette électronique et industrie du tabac

Face à la montée en puissance des cigarettes électroniques et à la baisse des ventes de cigarettes classiques, les cigarettiers réagissent, soit en rachetant les fabricants de cigarettes électroniques, soit en proposant leurs proposes marques de e-cigarettes ou de nouveaux produits du tabac chauffés et non fumés - pour attirer les fumeurs qui souhaitent préserver leur santé- Avec un objectif: dominer le marché! Lire la suite...

e-cigarette/cigarette-electronique-et-industrie-du-tabac.html (04 09 2014) 
(09 09 2014)


Electronic cigarettes: Fact and Faction -

Editorial by Robert West and Jamie Brown of University College London:

Electronic cigarettes: Fact and Faction - British Journal of General Practice

http://bjgp.org/content/64/626/442.full (02 09 2014) 
(09 09 2014)


A Molecular Basis for Nicotine as a Gateway Drug (or is there any?)

CONCLUSIONS

Gateway effect of nicotine as a consequence of global acetylation in the striatum

The results we obtained by combining epidemiologic and biologic studies suggest a model (Fig. 6) in which nicotine exerts its priming effect on cocaine by means of HDAC inhibition and provide a molecular explanation of the unidirectional sequence of drug use observed in mice and in human populations. Nicotine acts as a gateway drug and exerts a priming effect on cocaine in the sequence of drug use through global acetylation in the striatum, creating an environment primed for the induction of gene expression. Long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens is blocked when long-term exposure to nicotine is followed by cocaine use, which presumably lessens constraints on dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and leads to the enhanced release of dopamine.19 For all the measures we studied locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference, long-term potentiation, and FosB expression reversing the order of nicotine and cocaine exposure was ineffective: cocaine did not enhance the effect of nicotine. The priming effect of nicotine depended on its being given for 7 days before cocaine. Priming did not occur when nicotine was given for only 24 hours before cocaine.

These results provide a biologic basis and a molecular mechanism for the sequence of drug use observed in people. One drug affects the circuitry of the brain in a manner that potentiates the effects of a subsequent drug.

Moreover, we observed the priming effect of nicotine only when mice were given cocaine at the same time as nicotine, which suggests that HDAC inhibition by nicotine depends on the continuous intake of nicotine. This observation is consistent with epidemiologic data that show that most people start using cocaine while using nicotine, a state that may enhance the physiological effects of cocaine. We found evidence that there is a specific biologic mechanism thatexplains the sequence from cigarettes to cocaine in the population.

Thus, we believe that the gateway hypothesis and the common liability model are complementary. Common factors will explain the use of drugs in general, and specific factors will explain why young people use specific drugs and do so in a particular sequence. We can now ask whether the hyperacetylation produced by nicotine also accounts for the gateway effects of alcohol and marijuana. Is there a single mechanism for all gateway sequences, or does each sequence rely on a distinct mechanism?

HDAC activators might be of some use in treating addiction because they could decrease FOSB expression in response to cocaine. Modifying HDAC activators to target the striatum would be particularly desirable, since systemic treatments with HDAC activators or histone acetyltransferase inhibitors probably have deleterious effects on cognitive and other functioning.

Eric R. Kandel, M.D., and Denise B. Kandel, Ph.D.

N Engl J Med 2014;371:932-43.

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1405092

Read also 2 critics of this paper:

http://www.pharmiweb.com/PressReleases/pressrel.asp?ROW_ID=97903#.VAhqIqNWKuk

and

Politics over science: unprecedented distortion of evidence by a prestigious medical journal

http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/2013-04-07-09-50-07/2014/179-coc (05 09 2014) 
(09 09 2014)



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